Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are also referred as nosocomial infections, which are acquired in hospitals or any other healthcare facilities within 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. It is estimated that out of every 100 hospitalized cases, as many as 7 cases of HAIs are reported in developed countries and 10 in developing countries. The most common types of these infections are bloodstream infection (BSI), pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), and surgical site infection (SSI). Inadequate environmental hygienic conditions, poor infrastructure, poor knowledge and application of basic infection control measures, and absence of or non-compliance to local and national guidelines and policies are some of the main factors for increasing prevalence of HAIs.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) database, the number of surgical procedures in the U.S. is expected to reach to around 150 million procedures by 2023, from approximately 130 million procedures in 2018. Increasing number of surgeries have a direct impact on SSIs. Moreover, out of approximately 1.3 million surgeries performed in Canada yearly, about 26,000 to 65,000 patients acquire surgical site infections (SSIs), that cost nearly $350,000 to $1 million in additional healthcare expenditure, annually. In European countries, most of the HAIs are reported in the specialty areas of general medicine, cardiology, oncology, and neurology. As per the data from OECD, in 2016-2017, pneumonia accounted for the largest share of HAIs in Europe (accounting for 26% of all cases) followed by urinary tract infections (19%), surgical site infections (18%), bloodstream infections (11%) and gastrointestinal infections (9%), systemic (5%), skin (4%), and others (8%). Clinical Infectious Disease Journal 2017 stated that in Asia Pacific region, the risk of HAIs is 2-10 times higher than in developed countries. Up to 25% of hospitalized patients are found to acquire infections of which methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is the most common HAI found in Asia Pacific region.

Such growing prevalence of HAIs is prompting governments and various other organizations to implement various initiatives, investments, and programs for adoption of infection control policies and measures. For instance, in Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) in collaboration with Government of Canada spends around $3.4 million per year on HAI prevention activities. In China, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) and University of Hong Kong (HKUMed) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to jointly nurture public health professionals and provide cooperation on disease control and prevention and global health. In Malaysia, an Action Plan was launched in 2018 on Antimicrobial Resistance (MyAP-AMR) to combat the AMR threat. This action plan of 5 years expected to address four key priority areas – education and awareness, surveillance and research, infection prevention and control, and appropriate use of antimicrobials. In Brazil, Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), in partnership with the Ministry of Health and the 5 excellence hospitals initiated a dedicated project for infection prevention in December 2017, covering 120 public hospitals across Brazil. The program focused on reduction in the number of VAP (Ventilator Associated Pneumonia), CLABSI (Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections) and CAUTI (Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections) by 50%, and the project concluded with satisfying results. In Africa, countries such as Kenya, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Egypt have national infection prevention and control (IPC) programs which are a part of their ministries of health, to uniformly guide healthcare institutions in their respective countries.

Thus, rise in HAIs is driving government and non-government organizations to take initiatives to create awareness among the healthcare professionals regarding control and prevention of infections. This in turn is propelling the infection control market at CAGR of 6.3% to reach $30,917.5 million by 2027, according to the Meticulous Research®.

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Tags: Healthcare Connected Health / Digital Health


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