Published on 29 Jan 2018:

Advancement in Molecular Cloning Research with Emergence of New Technologies Boosts the Competent Cells Market Globally

The increase in genetic and chromosomal abnormalities has considerable proportion in neonatal and perinatal mortality in many countries around the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 30,300 newborns die within 4 weeks of birth every year because of genetic abnormalities. In addition, March of Dimes Reports on Birth Defects (MOD Foundation) declared that every year around 6% of children are born with serious birth defects or congenital abnormalities due to genetic factors. Also, more than 8.14 million children in South East Asia and 30 million in the U.S. are born with genetic abnormalities every year. Thus, to understand the molecular pathways, role of various genes, and mutation analysis, researchers have been developing new technologies since past decades.

Molecular cloning refers to the isolation of a DNA sequence from any species along with insertion of that gene into vector for propagation without altering the genetic make-up. Traditionally, researchers were using basic principles for production of recombinant DNA. However, they found these principles could not be sufficient for new evolution. For instance, restriction enzyme preparation and use of plasmids for cloning was not reliable due to non-standardization of protocol and limited DNA insert capacity, respectively. This inefficiency led to incline researchers towards improvements in tools and techniques used for molecular cloning.

Further, researchers recognized the requirement of general cloning plasmid for screening & selection; thus developed plasmid with unique restriction sites and antibiotic resistance gene for selection of recombinant bacteria. However, they observed that the plasmids even without DNA insert could give antibiotic resistance due to re-ligation. Thus, they developed new technique for selection of molecular clones, namely blue-white screening, where placement of multiple cloning sites (MCS) within Lac Z gene allowed screening host cells with target DNA.

In addition, cloning based research was highly suffered due to lack of purity of enzyme and lack of understanding of buffer requirements for each enzyme. To overcome these drawbacks, market vendors produced and commercialized restriction enzymes from a recombinant source; thereby enabling higher yields, purity, consistency, and cost efficiency.

Also, researchers found that the amount of insert DNA was very less for cloning; thus, they discovered new technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to amplify target DNA, by using primers. The advancement in technologies further expanded their type, namely, real time PCR, multiplex PCR, and others. This development helped to clone m-RNA as well which further benefits c-DNA library construction.

Introduction of PCR developed several other methods assisting in cloning these PCR products, namely, direct cloning (insert into the vector after restriction digestion) and blunt-end cloning (insert PCR products generated by polymerases that produced blunt ends). The evolution of these methods emerged new techniques for molecular cloning such as TA cloning, LIC (Ligation independent cloning) cloning, and USER cloning which varied in presence or absence of particular restriction enzyme.

The key players in the global competent cells market are Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Agilent Technologies, Inc., Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Merck & Company, Inc., Illumina, Inc., Promega Corporation, New England Biolabs, OriGene Technologies, Inc., Zymo Research Corporation, Scarab Genomics, LLC, Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Delphi Genetics S.A., Qiagen N.V., Cell Applications, Inc., GenScript Biotech Corporation, and Takara Holdings Inc.

Hence, owing to the unique properties and increasing applications in molecular cloning research, competent cells market has been witnessing a rapid growth at a CAGR of 10% to reach USD 2,318.6 million by 2023, according to the Meticulous Research®.

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